During the Crusades and Gothic periods (1000-1300) linen hose made from two-leg profile pieces replaced tube hose sewn together Bigelow (1970). These were held up with tapes tied to the waistband. Under the hose was worn a shapeless pair of linen legs which were stitched through the crutch, hemmed at the top and gathered by a drawstring around the waist. In time the outer hose were joined and called the closed hose or pair of legs. The invention of the knitting machine by William Lee in the sixteenth century revolutionised hosiery making. They became cheaper and were popular with both sexes. Hose came in bright colours often embroidered with gold thread on the instep and up the shin. The development of better knitting techniques was enveloped as well as the introduction of the full bottom hose and codpiece. The leg sections of these limb coverings were made to fit more smoothly by means of a series of small darts, hidden by embroidery, around the ankles of the hose. As doublets and suercotehardies came into general use the hose or chausses were first worn over the breeches but eventually these became only brief trunks and were then discarded in favour of the full bottom hose. Either these styles of leg coverings were attached to the doublets or jupes by cord laces with metal tap tips. (Bigelow, 1970). Hose were often decorated with embroidered clocks decorative patterns extending from the ankles to the calf. (Bigelow, 1970). In the 14th century, for a short period shoes were discarded in favour of stockings with leather soles. (Anderson Black & Garland, 1970). In the eighteenth century both men and women wore stockings made of silk or wool. These were usually white. Women’s stockings often had decoration open work over the instep or horizontal stripes and random patterns of rosebuds (Bigelow, 1970).
Anderson-Black J. Garland M. 1975 A history of fashion London: Orbis Publishing.
Bigelow MS 1970 Fashion in history apparel in the western world Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Co